Philip T. Hoffman

Rea A. and Lela G. Axline Professor of Business Economics and Professor of History


Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences
Mail Code: 228-77
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125

Phone: + (626) 395-4085

Fax: + (626) 405-9841




·         Recent Articles:

Why Was It Europeans Who Conquered the World?

Prices, the Military Revolution, and Western Europe’s Comparative Advantage in Violence

Entry, Information, and Financial Development: A Century of Competition Between French Banks and Notaries


Why Did Europe Conquer the World?


Surviving Large Losses

Finance, Intermediaries, and Economic Development

Growth in a Traditional Society


Priceless Markets (English edition)/Des Marchés sans Prix (French edition)

Fiscal Crises, Liberty, and Representative Government